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Sélection des matériaux et optimisation des performances des moteurs synchrones à aimants permanents

2024-02-08 11:50:53

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Moteurs synchrones à aimants permanents (PMSMs) are increasingly used in industrial automation, electric vehicles, énergie éolienne generation, and other fields, and the performance requirements of the motors are getting higher and higher. To meet these performance requirements, material selection and performance optimization become critical.

Selection of suitable materials for permanent magnet synchronous motors.

Material selection of permanent magnet synchronous motor

Permanent magnet material

Rare-earth permanent magnets, such as neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB), have high remanent magnetic density, high coercivity, and stable magnetic properties, and have become the preferred permanent magnet material for PMSM. Selection of a suitable rare earth permanent magnet requires consideration of its stability at different temperatures and mechanical loads. For example, the coercivity and temperature stability of permanent magnets can be improved by optimizing the composition and manufacturing process.

In addition, the shape and size of the permanent magnets need to be designed according to the specific needs of the motor. For example, rare-earth permanent magnets with a higher magnetic energy product can be used to achieve a higher torque density.

Matériaux d'enroulement

The winding is the conductive part of the motor, and its conductivity and heat resistance have a direct impact on motor performance. Copper (Cu) is a common winding material for PMSMs due to its excellent conductivity and corrosion resistance. To reduce energy consumption and improve efficiency, high-conductivity materials such as copper-aluminum alloys can be used.

In addition, the selection of insulating materials is crucial and is needed to ensure insulation between windings as well as insulation between the windings and the core. Commonly used insulating materials include insulating varnish, insulating film, etc., whose performance directly affects the electrical performance and reliability of the motor.

Matériaux de base

The iron core is the magnetically conductive part of PMSM, and its magnetic conductivity and mechanical strength have a great impact on motor performance. Silicon steel sheet is a commonly used core material, especially oriented silicon steel sheet with high permeability and good mechanical strength. To further optimize the performance of the core material, surface coating, grain refinement, and other methods can be used to improve the material’s permeability and mechanical strength.

In addition, some new core materials, such as amorphous alloys, also show good application prospects. The amorphous alloy has excellent soft magnetic properties and mechanical strength, which can further improve the efficiency of the motor.

Cooling system materials

The cooling system is crucial to ensure the stable operation of motors in high-temperature environments. Commonly used cooling system materials include heat sinks and coolant. The thermal conductivity of the heat sink has a great impact on the cooling effect, so choosing materials with high thermal conductivity can improve the cooling effect. At the same time, choose the suitable coolant to ensure stable operation of the motor in a high-temperature environment. New cooling technologies, such as heat pipe technology, liquid cooling technology, etc., are also being explored and applied to improve the cooling performance of the motor.

Parts of a powerful permanent magnet synchronous motor.

Permanent magnet synchronous motor performance optimization methods

Conception optimisée

Through reasonable motor structure design, the magnetic field distribution, torque output, and heat conduction path can be optimized to improve the performance and efficiency of the motor. For example, optimizing the relative position of the stator and rotor and adjusting the length of the air gap can improve the magnetic field distribution; optimizing the number of turns of the windings and the coil design can improve the torque output; and optimizing the design of the heat dissipation system can improve the heat conduction effect. In addition, numerical simulation methods such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA) can be used to analyze the motor in detail to optimize the design parameters.

Processus de fabrication avancé

Advanced manufacturing processes can ensure the quality and precision of each part of the motor, thereby improving the performance and stability of the motor. For example, advanced stamping, welding, and casting technologies are used to manufacture the core and windings; vacuum dipping paint technology is used to improve insulation performance; laser welding technology is used to improve the strength of the connection between the windings and the core. In addition, strict quality control is also a key factor to ensure the performance of the motor.

Control strategy optimization

High efficiency and stable operation of the motor can be achieved by optimizing the control strategy. For example, the vector control strategy is used to regulate the torque and magnetic field of the motor; the sliding mode control strategy is used to improve the dynamic response of the motor; and the predictive control strategy is used to reduce energy consumption. In addition, advanced sensor technologies and intelligent algorithms can also be used to optimize the control strategy to improve the performance and stability of the motor.

 

Cinclusion

Through the in-depth analysis of material selection and performance optimization of PMSMs, it can be seen that suitable material selection and effective performance optimization methods are crucial for improving the performance and efficiency of PMSMs. The future development will depend more on the continuous emergence and innovative application of new materials and technologies. For example, the research and application of new rare-earth permanent magnet materials will further promote the progress of PMSM technology; the application of new core materials such as amorphous alloys will further improve the efficiency of the motor; and the application of new heat dissipation technologies and composite cooling systems will further enhance the reliability and stability of the motor. Meanwhile, the development of intelligent manufacturing and digital technology will provide more possibilities for material selection and performance optimization of PMSM. Therefore, we need to keep exploring and innovating to promote the continuous progress of PMSM technology and the expansion of application fields.

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